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Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) Definition

What Is the Dow Jones Industrial Common (DJIA)?

The Dow Jones Industrial Common (DJIA), often known as the Dow 30, is a inventory market index that tracks 30 giant, publicly-owned blue-chip corporations buying and selling on the New York Inventory Alternate (NYSE) and the NASDAQ. The Dow Jones is known as after Charles Dow, who created the index in 1896 alongside along with his enterprise associate Edward Jones.

Key Takeaways

  • The Dow Jones Industrial Common (DJIA) is a widely-watched benchmark index within the U.S. for blue-chip shares.
  • The DJIA is a price-weighted index that tracks 30 giant, publicly-owned corporations buying and selling on the New York Inventory Alternate (NYSE) and the NASDAQ.
  • The index was created by Charles Dow in 1896 to function a proxy for the broader U.S. financial system.

The Dow Jones Industrial Common

Understanding the Dow Jones Industrial Common

The DJIA is the second oldest U.S. market index; the primary was the Dow Jones Transportation Average (DJTA). The DJIA was designed to function a proxy for the well being of the broader U.S. financial system. Usually referred to easily as “the Dow,” the DJIA is without doubt one of the most-watched inventory market indexes on the planet. Whereas the Dow features a vary of corporations, all might be described as blue-chip corporations with persistently secure earnings.

When the index initially launched in 1896, it included solely 12 corporations. These corporations had been primarily within the industrial sector, together with the railroads, cotton, fuel, sugar, tobacco, and oil.

Within the early twentieth century, the efficiency of business corporations was sometimes tied to the general progress fee within the financial system. That cemented the connection between the Dow’s efficiency and that of the general financial system. Even as we speak, for a lot of buyers a strong-performing Dow equals a robust financial system (whereas a weak-performing Dow signifies a slowing financial system).

Because the financial system modifications over time, so does the composition of the index. A part of the Dow could also be dropped when an organization turns into much less related to present traits of the financial system, to get replaced by a brand new identify that higher displays the shift.

An organization that loses a big share of its market capitalization resulting from monetary misery is perhaps faraway from the Dow. Market capitalization is a technique of measuring the worth of an organization by multiplying the variety of shares excellent by its inventory value.

Shares with higher share prices are given higher weight within the index. So the next share transfer in a higher-priced part may have a higher impression on the ultimate calculated worth. On the Dow’s inception, Charles Dow calculated the typical by including the costs of the twelve Dow part shares and dividing by twelve. The top outcome was a easy common. Over time, there have been additions and subtractions to the index, akin to mergers and inventory splits that needed to be accounted for. At this level, a easy imply calculation now not made sense.

The Dow Divisor and Index Calculation

The Dow Divisor was created to deal with the easy common situation. The divisor is a predetermined fixed that’s used to find out the impact of a one-point transfer in any of the roughly 30 shares that comprise the Dow. There have been situations when the divisor wanted to be modified in order that the worth of Dow stayed constant. The Dow Divisor as of October 2021 was 0.15188516925198.

The Dow shouldn’t be calculated utilizing a weighted arithmetic common and it doesn’t symbolize its part corporations’ market capitalization (in contrast to the S&P 500). Slightly, it displays the sum of the value of 1 share of inventory for all of the parts, divided by the divisor. Thus, a one-point transfer in any of the part shares will transfer the index by an an identical variety of factors.

DJIA Worth = SUM (Part inventory costs) / Dow divisor

Dow Index Parts

The index is usually reevaluated to switch corporations that now not meet the itemizing standards with people who do. By 1928, the Index had grown to 30 parts. Its composition has modified many occasions since then.

The primary change got here simply three months after the 30 part index was launched. In its first few years till roughly the Great Depression, there have been quite a few modifications to its parts. The primary large-scale change was in 1932, when eight shares within the Dow had been changed.

The newest large-scale change to the composition of the Dow previous to 2020 occurred in 1997. At the moment, 4 of the index’s parts had been changed: Vacationers’ Group changed Westinghouse Electrical; Johnson & Johnson changed Bethlehem Metal; Hewlett-Packard took over Texaco’s spot, and Wal-Mart changed Woolworth.

Two years later, in 1999, 4 extra parts of the Dow had been modified, when Chevron, Sears Roebuck, Union Carbide, and Goodyear Tire had been dropped whereas House Depot, Intel, Microsoft, and SBC Communications had been added.

On June 26, 2018, Walgreens Boots Alliance, Inc. changed Common Electrical Firm. As well as, United Applied sciences merged with Raytheon Firm and the brand new company entered the index as Raytheon Applied sciences, whereas DowDuPont spun off DuPont and was changed by Dow Chemical Firm in 2020 and 2019, respectively.

On Aug. 24, 2020, Salesforce, Amgen, and Honeywell had been added to the Dow, changing ExxonMobil, Pfizer, and Raytheon Applied sciences.

The desk beneath alphabetically lists the businesses included within the DJIA as of October 2021:

Dow Jones Industrial Common Parts
Firm Image 12 months Added
3M MMM 1976
American Categorical AXP 1982
Amgen AMGN 2020
Apple Inc. AAPL 2015
Boeing BA 1987
Caterpillar CAT 1991
Chevron CVX 2008
Cisco Methods CSCO 2009
The Coca-Cola Firm KO 1987
Dow Inc. DOW 2019
Goldman Sachs GS 2013
The House Depot HD 1999
Honeywell HON 2020
IBM IBM 1979
Intel INTC 1999
Johnson & Johnson JNJ 1997
JPMorgan Chase JPM 1991
McDonald’s MCD 1985
Merck & Co. MRK 1979
Microsoft MSFT 1999
Proctor & Gamble PG 1932
Salesforce CRM 2020
The Vacationers Corporations TRV 2009
UnitedHealth Group UNH 2012
Verizon VZ 2004
Visa V 2013
Walmart WMT 1997
Walgreens Boots Alliance WBA 2018
The Walt Disney Firm DIS 1991
30 DJIA corporations as of October 2021

Historic Milestones

The next are some essential historic milestones achieved by the Dow: 

  • March 15, 1933: The most important one-day share achieve within the index occurred throughout the Thirties bear market, totaling 15.34%. The Dow gained 8.26 factors and closed at 62.10.
  • Oct. 19, 1987: The most important one-day share drop occurred on Black Monday. The index fell 22.61%. There was no evident rationalization for the crash, though program buying and selling might have been a contributing issue.
  • Sept. 17, 2001: The fourth-largest one-day level drop—and the most important on the time—occurred the primary day of buying and selling following the 9/11 assaults in New York Metropolis. The Dow dropped 684.81 factors or about 7.1%. Nevertheless, you will need to observe that the index had been dropping earlier than Sept. 11, shedding greater than 1,000 factors between Jan. 2 and Sept. 10. The DJIA began to make traction after the assaults and regained all of what it misplaced, closing above 10,000 for the yr.
  • Could 3, 2013: The Dow surpassed the 15,000 mark for the primary time in historical past. 
  • Jan. 25, 2017: The Dow closed above 20,000 factors for the primary time.
  • Jan. 4, 2018: The index closed at 25,075.13, the primary shut above 25,000 factors.
  • Jan. 17, 2018: The Dow closed at 26,115.65, the primary shut above 26,000 factors.
  • Feb. 5, 2018: The Dow fell a file 1,175.21 factors.
  • Dec. 26, 2018: The Dow recorded its largest one-day level achieve of 1,086.25.
  • July 11, 2019: The Dow broke above 27,000 for the primary time in its historical past.
  • Feb. 12, 2020: The Dow hits its pre-crisis excessive of 29,551.
  • March 2020: The Dow Jones crashes with back-to-back file down days amid the worldwide coronavirus pandemic, breaking beneath 20,000 and falling 3,000 factors in a single day amid a number of 2,000 and 1,500 up and down strikes. It formally entered bear market territory on March 11, 2020, ending the longest bull market in historical past that started in March 2009.
  • Nov. 16, 2020: The Dow lastly breaks its pre-COVID-19 excessive, reaching 29,950.44 factors.
  • Nov. 24, 2020: The Dow shut breaks the 30,000 level for the primary time, closing at 30,045.84.
  • July 2021: On July 12, 2021 the Dow trades above 35,000 for the primary time ever. On July 23, 2021, it closes above 35,000 for the primary time ever.

People can spend money on the Dow, which might imply gaining publicity to the entire corporations listed in it, via exchange traded funds (ETFs), such because the SPDR Dow Jones Industrial Common ETF (DIA).

Limitations of the DJIA

Many critics of the Dow argue that it doesn’t considerably symbolize the state of the U.S. financial system because it consists of solely 30 large-cap U.S. corporations. They consider the variety of corporations is just too small and it neglects corporations of various sizes. Many critics consider the S&P 500 is a greater illustration of the financial system because it contains considerably extra corporations, 500 versus 30.

The S&P 500 has outperformed the DIJA on an annualized foundation during the last one-, three-, five-, and 10-year intervals.

Moreover, critics consider that factoring solely the value of a inventory within the calculation doesn’t precisely replicate an organization, as a lot as contemplating an organization’s market cap would. On this method, an organization with the next inventory value however a smaller market cap would have extra weight than an organization with a smaller inventory value however a bigger market cap, which might poorly replicate the true dimension of an organization.

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