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Inventory Turnover Definition: Formula & Calculation

What Is Stock Turnover?

Table of Contents

Stock turnover is a monetary ratio displaying what number of occasions an organization has offered and changed inventory throughout a given interval. An organization can then divide the times within the interval by the stock turnover system to calculate the times it takes to promote the stock available.

Calculating stock turnover can assist companies make higher choices on pricing, manufacturing, advertising, and buying new stock.

Key Takeaways

  • Stock turnover measures what number of occasions in a given interval an organization is ready to exchange the inventories that it has offered.
  • A sluggish turnover implies weak gross sales and presumably extra stock, whereas a sooner ratio implies both robust gross sales or inadequate stock.
  • Excessive quantity, low margin industries—equivalent to retailers and supermarkets—are likely to have the very best stock turnover.

Studying The Stock Turnover

Stock Turnover System and Calculation

Stock Turnover



Common Worth of Stock

the place:



Value of items offered

beginaligned &textInventory Turnover = frac textCOGS textAverage Worth of Stock &textbfwhere: &textCOGS = textCost of products offered endaligned

Stock Turnover=Common Worth of StockCOGSthe place:COGS=Value of items offered


Common Stock = (Starting Stock + Ending Stock) / 2

Corporations can even calculate stock turnover by:

  1. Calculating the typical stock, which is finished by dividing the sum of starting stock and ending stock by two.
  2. Dividing gross sales by common stock.

As you possibly can see above, there are two essential strategies to calculate stock turnover: one utilizing the cost of goods sold (COGS) and the opposite utilizing gross sales. Analysts divide COGS by common stock, as an alternative of gross sales, for larger accuracy within the stock turnover calculation as a result of gross sales embody a markup over price. Dividing gross sales by common stock inflates stock turnover. In each conditions, common stock is used to assist take away seasonality results.

What Stock Turnover Can Inform You

Stock turnover measures how briskly an organization sells stock. A low turnover implies weak gross sales and presumably extra stock, also called overstocking. It might point out an issue with the products being provided on the market or be a results of too little advertising.

A excessive ratio, however, implies both robust gross sales or inadequate stock. The previous is fascinating whereas the latter might result in misplaced enterprise.

Typically a low stock turnover fee is an efficient factor, equivalent to when costs are anticipated to rise (stock pre-positioned to fulfill fast-rising demand) or when shortages are anticipated.

The pace at which an organization can promote stock is a crucial measure of enterprise efficiency. Retailers that transfer stock out sooner are likely to outperform. The longer an merchandise is held, the upper its holding price will likely be, and the less causes shoppers must return to the store for brand spanking new gadgets.

An excellent instance may be seen within the fast fashion enterprise. Corporations equivalent to H&M and Zara sometimes restrict runs and exchange depleted stock shortly with new gadgets. Sluggish-selling gadgets equate to increased holding prices in comparison with the faster-selling stock. There’s additionally the opportunity cost of low stock turnover; an merchandise that takes a very long time to promote prevents the location of newer gadgets that will promote extra readily.

Nusha Ashjaee Copyright, Investopedia, 2019.

Stock Turnover and Lifeless Inventory

Stock turnover is an particularly essential piece of information for maximizing effectivity within the sale of perishable and different time-sensitive items. Some examples may very well be milk, eggs, produce, quick trend, cars, and periodicals.

An overabundance of cashmere sweaters could result in unsold stock and misplaced earnings, particularly as seasons change and retailers restock with new, seasonal stock. Such unsold inventory is called obsolete inventory or lifeless inventory.

Stock Turnover and Open-to-Purchase Techniques

Some retailers could make use of an open-to-buy system as they search to handle their inventories and the replenishment of their inventories extra effectively. Open-to-buy techniques, at their core, are software program budgeting techniques for buying merchandise. Such a system can be utilized to observe merchandise and could also be built-in right into a retailer’s financing and stock management processes.

It could assist small retailers higher handle choices on how a lot stock to purchase, how one can consider how stock is performing, and help with future stock procurement. Such software program could also be tailor-made to a point however might not be helpful for all sorts of merchandise. For instance, it might work finest with seasonal merchandise and trend, however might not be an excellent match for fast-selling shopper items or fundamental gadgets and staples.

Instance of Methods to Use Stock Turnover

Assume Firm ABC has $1 million in gross sales and $250,000 in COGS. The common stock is $25,000. Utilizing this info, we are able to see that the corporate has a list turnover of 40 or $1 million divided by $25,000. In different phrases, inside a yr Firm ABC tends to show over its stock 40 occasions.

Taking it a step additional, dividing one year by the stock turnover reveals what number of days on common it takes an organization to promote its stock. Within the case of Firm ABC, it’s 9.1.

Alternatively, utilizing the opposite technique—COGS / common stock—the stock turnover is 10, or $250,000 in COGS divided by $25,000 in stock. Stock is available for 36.5 days underneath this strategy, or 365 / 10.

Stock Turnover vs. Days Gross sales of Stock

Stock turnover reveals how shortly an organization can promote (flip over) its stock. In the meantime, days of inventory (DSI) seems to be on the common time an organization can flip its stock into gross sales.

DSI is actually the inverse of stock turnover for a given interval, calculated as (stock / COGS) * 365. Principally, DSI is the variety of days it takes to show stock into gross sales, whereas stock turnover determines what number of occasions in a yr stock is offered or used.

Particular Concerns

When evaluating or projecting stock turnover, one should evaluate related merchandise and companies. For instance, vehicle turnover at a automotive supplier could flip over far slower than fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) offered by a grocery store (snacks, sweets, gentle drinks, and so forth.).

Attempting to control stock turnover with reductions or closeouts is one other consideration, as it may considerably minimize into return on investment (ROI) and profitability.

How Do you Calculate Stock Turnover?

Stock turnover is a measure of how shortly an organization sells its stock in a yr and is commonly used as a metric of general operational effectivity.

There are two standard methods of calculating stock turnover. The primary technique consists of dividing the corporate’s annual gross sales by its common stock stability, whereas the second technique divides the annual price of products offered (COGS) by common stock. In both case, the typical stock stability is commonly estimated by taking the sum of starting and ending stock for the yr and dividing it by 2.

What Is a Good Stock Turnover?

What counts as a “good” stock turnover will rely upon the trade in query. As a normal rule, industries stocking merchandise which can be comparatively cheap will are likely to have increased stock turnovers, whereas dearer gadgets—the place prospects normally take extra time earlier than making a purchase order determination—will are likely to have decrease stock turnovers.

As an illustration, an organization promoting low cost merchandise may promote the equal of 30 occasions their stock in a yr, whereas an organization promoting massive industrial equipment may solely cycle by means of their stock 3 occasions. Stock turnover ratios, subsequently, have to be assessed relative to an organization’s trade and opponents in an effort to inform whether or not they’re good or unhealthy.

Is Excessive Stock Turnover Good or Dangerous?

Corporations will nearly all the time aspire to have a excessive stock turnover. In spite of everything, a excessive stock turnover reduces the quantity of capital they’ve tied up of their stock, thereby bettering their liquidity and monetary power. Furthermore, maintaining a excessive stock turnover reduces the danger that their stock will grow to be unsellable because of spoilage, harm, theft, or technological obsolescence.

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